Monday, March 19, 2012

Different Breeds of Swine

Objectives:
      a. define the term swine;
      b.  identify the different breeds of swine; and
      c.  sustain interest of the importance of different breeds of swine.

Swine
is any animal of the hog kind especially one of the domestically species.

Different Breeds of Swine
   Philippine Native Swine – is either black or black with a white belly. The breed is very prolific and have a low feed conversion ratio.
               The Duroc breed of hogs had its origin in the eastern United States and in the Corn Belt. It would seem presumptuous today to attempt to identify the foundation stock of the breed, which was originally called the Duroc-Jersey, because persons attempting to write the history of the breed only a few years after it was formed could not definitely state the exact source of the red hogs that went into their foundation. One source of the red or reddish-brown hogs that were found in the United States was reputed to be those that came from the Guinea coast of Africa, and it is said that hogs similar to those found on the Guinea coast were found in every country to which early slave trading vessels found their way. In The Story of Durocs it is stated that red hogs were brought to America by Columbus on his second voyage, and red hogs were also brought to this country by De Soto. These were presumed to have come from Spain and Portugal, and red hogs were sent from Portugal to Nova Scotia. In The Breeds of Livestock, Sanders is of the opinion that reddish-brown hogs of the Berkshire strain were brought to the United States and probably found their way into the Duroc breed.


                                  

 Poland China swine, oldest breed of swine to have originated in the United States and one of the most popular. A number of strains have contributed to the development of this breed, notably the Irish Grazier and the Berkshire. Poland Chinas, among the largest of swine, are usually black; some have white spots on different parts of the body, particularly on the feet, nose, and tail.




Hampshires are one of the oldest breeds in America. They
have erect ears ( meaning they stand straight up). First let’s look at
the qualifications of the breed.



Landrace are white in color. Their ears droop and slant
forward with its top edges nearly parallel to the bridge of a straight
nose. Landrace, which are noted for their ability to farrow and raise
large litters, are the fifth most recorded breed of swine in the United
States.


Yorkshire Pigs

Yorkshires are white in color and have erect ears. They are
the most recorded breed of swine in the United States and in Canada.
They are found in almost every state, with the highest populations
being in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Nebraska and Ohio


American Spotted hogs have ties to both the Gloucester Old Spot and the
Poland China. The Spotted Pig is known to be prolific breeders, mature
early, and have good feed efficiency.

Spotted Pig Standards

1:  Ears can not be erect.
2:
 Any red tinted or brown spots are ineligible.
3:
 No solid black head from ears forward.
4:
 No distinct white belt pattern (hair or skin) encircling and extending down and onto each
shoulder
.
As you can see, the ears on American Spotted hogs are not erect but
they also do not lay flat in the face as do the Gloucester Old Spot.



                                       
 

The Oxford Sandy & Black
The Oxford Sandy & Black Pig sometimes referred to as the “Plum Pudding or Oxford Forest Pig” is one of the oldest British pig breeds, it has existed for 200-300 years. A traditional farmers and cottagers pig, of the middle part of the country, especially around Oxfordshire. It seems to be closely linked to the old Berkshire and Tamworth. Did it diverge from them? Or was it the result of crossbreeding between them? Or crossbreeding with an entirely different breed no-one is entirely sure.

The Oxford Sandy & Black or OSB has reached crisis point at least twice in it’s past when numbers dropped so low that extinction was a real possibility. Unfortunately it had no Society or herd book to look after it’s wellbeing. As long ago as the 1940’s boar licensing had dropped to one or two a year for OSB’s but for a few dedicated breeders the breed would surely have been lost. In 1973 the Rare Breeds Survival Trust was formed giving hope for the breed, but the Trust decided not to recognise the OSB. Once again the dedicated breeders were on their own. The decline continued to the brink of extinction when in 1985 the current Breed Society was formed following contact with all known breeders of the OSB by the Societies founder secretary Steven Kimmins ably supported and helped by Andrew J.Sheppy Chairman and Geoffrey Cloke President. The breed owes a great debt and it’s survival to them.

There were 29 herds listed in the first herd book with 15 Boars and 62 Sows. Sadly some of the bloodlines have been lost, but today’s dedicated and enthusiastic breeders are determined to save the remaining lines. The current picture is very encouraging with the rarest bloodlines hanging on and slowly increasing. Hopefully the Breed is at last safe (although still relatively few in number) Recognition by, and transfer of herd book management to the BPA from the Oxford Sandy and Black Society has already brought the hoped for benefits of increased publicity and opportunity to compete in the shop window of BPA recognised shows. 












Berkshire
The Berkshire breed has long been known for its efficiency in gaining weight.  Berkshire
hogs have possessed their excellent carcass quality since the early 1800ís.  The meat quality
of the Berkshire is unique because it has a greater proportion of lean meat intermixed with
streaks of fat.  This intramuscular fat gives more marbling in comparison to other breeds.
When cooked the increased marbling produces a juicer pork product with more flavor for the
consumer.
Like all the swine breeds that end in Berkshires have erect ears.  In fact, the word
means erect.  The Berkshire breed standard requires a pig to have a color pattern
consisting of only black and white hairs.  The white points must appear on the nose, feet, and
tail.  These white points can be missing and any additional white points may appear on the
body of the animal.  Animals that are ineligible for registration would possess hair colors
other than black and white, have less than 12 teats, have one or more swirled hair patterns,
show signs of blindness, contain rectal or uterine prolapse, be born with hermaphroditism, be
born with anal atresia, be born with cryptorchidism, or develop a scrotal or umbilical hernia.


 
How to Breed Pigs
Pigs can breed often, have a short gestation period and produce large litters. These factors make breeding pigs lucrative. You only need a few males to breed many females. A single boar, at least a year in age, can breed with 50 females housed in stalls, or 40 located in a pasture.
Instructions 
 1.       Select sows for mating that are at least 10 months old. Breeding males should be at least 8 months old. Boars that age can be bred with about 12 females. Use older males to service larger numbers of females.
    1. Look at the sows' vulva's for swelling that indicates a period of fertility. During this time, younger sows can be bred on their first fertile day, while older sows should be bred the next day.
    2. Breed the pigs during each fertile period until pregnancy is achieved. The gestation period is about 113 days.
    3. Treat the mother for worms and lice before babies are born to prevent the newborns from being infected. Give the mother an immunization for erysipelas before the babies are born to protect the offspring.  
    4.     Keep the pen clean and sanitary, cleaning it regularly with a mild cleanser so that infection and disease will not spread from the pigs to the newborns. Gently wash the pregnant pig before the piglets are born.
 
NOTE:
It’s interesting, fun and a learning experience when rising pigs. Raising few pigs may also provide some income on a small scale for families who live on a bigger lot. Pigs grow fast. They can be sold hardness to adopt it to adverse environmental conditions. It is recommended for pork production because of its leanness. It feeds conversion rate is good!

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